Once again, Bailey has written an irresistible and brilliant narrative history. Read more Read less. Add all three to Cart Add all three to List.
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Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. The Fall of the House of Vanderbilt. When the Astors Owned New York: My Life in Service to Lady Astor.
Queen Mary and the House of Windsor. Duke and Duchess of Kent. Penguin Books; 1st edition December 30, Language: Start reading Black Diamonds on your Kindle in under a minute.
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Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention coal mining downton abbey black diamonds coal miners catherine bailey fitzwilliam family coal industry wentworth house coal mines secret rooms mining industry stranger than fiction kick kennedy well written aristocratic family world war twentieth century highly recommended earl fitzwilliam amount of research.
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Please try again later. I was a South Yorkshire miner. I lived in two houses on Firbeck street in Denaby, scene of the disgusting evictions in the 'Bag Muck Strike' - grew up in one, and the other my first house still a 'pit house' , i.
I worked at both Denaby and Cadeby collieries. In the 's conditions down the mines had not changed that much from the 19th century and I have crawled along many times in many places where the tunnel gallery roofs had pressed the steel girders down into a 'W' shape from their normal 'n' configuration.
I played and courted on Fitzwilliam land yet knew practically nothing of this tragic family until reading this saga. A blockbuster of a book that makes ' Downton Abbey' pale by comparison and just happens to be true.
Sad fact - only 9 reviews on Amazon. Most people in England are more interested in 'Big Brother' or 'I'm a Celebrity get me out of Here' than their own history.
So sorry to see how this rich family who treat their workers so very differently from the typical 'upper crust' came to grief and were cruelly ravaged by those who if they had acted with knowledge and justice should have made Wentworth House a national treasure, shame on them, thank you Catherine Bailey.
Extra facets, to be exact. These facets effectively allow more light through the stone, and can therefore hide possible inclusions.
A Princess cut is the Rolls Royce of square and rectangular shaped stones. This shape is particularly suited to people with longer fingers, as the sharp edges suit them beautifully.
A square or rectangular shaped hybrid, this dramatic cut combines the brilliance and depth of the Round, Emerald and Princess cuts. This is the ideal shape for someone looking to make a statement, while still maintaining a sense of style.
Black Diamonds are real diamonds, but with inclusions of graphite and carbon. That is the best way to explain a carbonado, or Black Diamond. The most interesting thing about Black Diamonds, besides their obvious dark beauty, is the source of their origin.
Theories range from interstellar meteor impacts to spontaneous fission of uranium and thorium to asteroid debris, all certainly intriguing. Mined, cut and polished by terrestrial beings, each stone is lovingly placed into a setting to accompany you through your days on this earth.
A gemstone that certainly brings jewellery to life, Topaz is one of the more common precious gemstones. Beautiful gemstones once cut and polished, they can be found in larger sizes, sometimes as big as boulders.
Think versatile, think different. Tsavorite is a uniquely African gemstone and a variety of the garnet group. It also has a swashbuckling African adventure story behind its discovery.
In , British gem prospector and geologist Dr. Campbell Bridges discovered a deposit of green grossularite in the mountains of north-east Tanzania.
Unable to export the stones from Tanzania at the time, the good Doctor made for Kenya, believing the deposit to be part of a larger geological structure.
He was successful a second time in , where he found the continuation of the mineral deposit in proximity to the Tsavo National Park, hence the name.
Rare in gem-quality and over several carats in weight, Tsavorite also has a particularly high refractive index, giving the stone fantastic brilliance and life.
What do they have in common? The colour yellow, gold and sunlight. The birthstone of November babies and associated with good luck in money, these stones were often kept in cash registers by superstitious shop owners.
Wear it proudly and have luck follow you throughout your day. Tanzanite is an extraordinary gemstone, occurring in only one place worldwide: Since that first offering popularity has soared and today the stone is highly sought-after.
Tanzanites are show-stopping stones and conversation points. These are not stones for people wanting to blend in. The person wearing a Tanzanite is guaranteed to steal the limelight when entering a room.
Sapphires are pure class, and perfect for people comfortable in their own skin. They can symbolise trust, love and partnership. Of the same gemstone class as Ruby, Sapphire has the second highest hardness to a diamond, and can be found in an entire rainbow of colours, not just the brilliant blue sapphire as is traditionally known.
For something completely different, why not venture into the realms of a purple, pink, yellow or peach Sapphire? For thousands of years, the Ruby has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones of all.
It has everything a precious stone should have: Like everything of true value, it is also extremely rare, especially in its finer qualities.
Emeralds have an intense and hypnotic colour with mystical qualities. The mysterious nature of the Emerald has even resulted in people selling them as special gems with healing properties.
We are sure, however, that these are gorgeous gems. In fact, top quality fine Emeralds are even more valuable than diamonds. Anyone who has seen the sky, the ocean, and especially the effect both can have on each other will understand the diversity of blue as a colour.
Aquamarines are fascinating stones that embody this beautifully. With fine blue shades which are complimentary to any skin or eye colour , we produce exquisite jewellery using aquamarines as the foundation.
However, a girdle is required in reality in order to prevent the diamond from easily chipping in the setting. The thick part of the girdle is normally about 1.
The further the diamond's characteristics are from the Tolkowsky's ideal, the less light will be reflected. However, there is a small range in which the diamond can be considered "ideal".
Tolkowsky's calculations can be repeated for a narrow range of pavilion angles. Such calculations show a slightly larger table percentage, and a trade-off between pavilion angle and crown angle.
Today, because of the relative importance of carat weight among buyers, many diamonds are often intentionally cut poorly to increase carat weight.
There is a financial premium for a diamond that weighs the desirable 1. Neither of these changes makes the diamond appear any larger, and both greatly reduce the sparkle of the diamond.
A poorly cut 1. The depth percentage is the overall quickest indication of the quality of the cut of a round brilliant. Another quick indication is the overall diameter.
Typically a round brilliant 1. Mathematically, the diameter in millimeters of a round brilliant should approximately equal to 6.
Diamonds do not show all of their beauty as rough stones; instead, they must be cut and polished to exhibit the characteristic fire and brilliance that diamond gemstones are known for.
Diamonds are cut into a variety of shapes that are generally designed to accentuate these features. Diamonds which are not cut into a round brilliant shape are known as "fancy cuts.
Newer cuts that have been introduced into the jewelry industry are the "cushion" "radiant" similar to princess cuts, but with rounded edges instead of square edges and Asscher cuts.
Many fancy colored diamonds are now being cut according to these new styles. Generally speaking, these "fancy cuts" are not held to the same strict standards as Tolkowsky-derived round brilliants and there are less specific mathematical guidelines of angles which determine a well-cut stone.
Cuts are influenced heavily by fashion: The princess cut is also popular amongst diamond cutters: The past decades have seen the development of new diamond cuts, often based on a modification of an existing cut.
Some of these include extra facets. These newly developed cuts are viewed by many as more of an attempt at brand differentiation by diamond sellers, than actual improvements to the state of the art.
The quality of a diamond's cut is widely considered the most important of the four Cs in determining the beauty of a diamond; indeed, it is commonly acknowledged that a well-cut diamond can appear to be of greater carat weight, and have clarity and color appear to be of better grade than they actually are.
The skill with which a diamond is cut determines its ability to reflect and refract light. In addition to carrying the most importance to a diamond's quality as a gemstone, the cut is also the most difficult to quantitatively judge.
A number of factors, including proportion, polish, symmetry , and the relative angles of various facets, are determined by the quality of the cut and can affect the performance of a diamond.
A diamond with facets cut only a few degrees out of alignment can result in a poorly performing stone. For a round brilliant cut, there is a balance between "brilliance" and "fire".
When a diamond is cut for too much "fire", it looks like a cubic zirconia , which gives off much more "fire" than real diamond.
A well-executed round brilliant cut should reflect light upwards and make the diamond appear white when viewed from the top.
An inferior cut will produce a stone that appears dark at the center and in extreme cases the setting may be seen through the top of the diamond as shadows.
Several different theories on the "ideal" proportions of a diamond have been and continue to be advocated by various owners of patents on machines to view how well a diamond is cut.
These advocate a shift away from grading cut by the use of various angles and proportions toward measuring the performance of a cut stone.
A number of specially modified viewers and machines have been developed toward this end. Hearts and Arrows viewers test for the " hearts and arrows " characteristic pattern observable in stones exhibiting high symmetry and particular cut angles.
Closely related to Hearts and Arrows viewers is the ASET which tests for light leakage, light return, and proportions. Detractors, however, see these machines as marketing tools rather than scientific ones.
The GIA has developed a set of criteria for grading the cut of round brilliant stones that is now the standard in the diamond industry and is called Facetware.
The process of shaping a rough diamond into a polished gemstone is both an art and a science. The choice of cut is often decided by the original shape of the rough stone, location of the inclusions and flaws to be eliminated, the preservation of the weight, popularity of certain shapes amongst consumers and many other considerations.
Oddly shaped crystals such as macles are more likely to be cut in a fancy cut —that is, a cut other than the round brilliant—which the particular crystal shape lends itself to.
Since the per carat price of diamond shifts around key milestones such as 1. Some jewelry experts advise consumers to buy a 0. In the gem trade, the term light performance is used to describe how well a polished diamond will return light to the viewer.
There are three light properties which are described in relation to light performance: Brilliance refers to the white light reflections from the external and internal facet surfaces.
Fire refers to the spectral colors which are produced as a result of the diamond dispersing the white light. Scintillation refers to the small flashes of light that are seen when the diamond, light source or the viewer is moved.
A diamond that is cut and polished to produce a high level of these qualities is said to be high in light performance. The setting diamonds are placed in also affect the performance of light through a diamond.
The three most commonly used settings are: Prong, Bezel, and Channel. Prong settings are the most popular setting for diamond jewelry.
The prong setting consists of four or six 'claws' that cradle the diamond, allowing the maximum amount of light to enter from all angles, allowing the diamonds to appear larger and more brilliant.
In bezel settings the diamond or gemstone is completely surrounded by a rim of metal, which can be molded into any shape to accommodate the stone.
Used to set earrings, necklaces, bracelets, and rings, bezel settings can have open or closed backs, and generally can be molded to allow a lot of light to pass through.
Channel settings set the stones right next to each other with no metal separating them. This setting is mostly used in wedding and anniversary bands.
The outer ridge is then worked over the edges of the stones to create a smooth exterior surface. This also protects the girdle area of the stone.
About a third of all diamonds will glow under ultraviolet light, usually a blue color which may be noticeable under a black light or strong sunlight.
Other colors diamonds can fluoresce are green , yellow , and red but are very rare and are sometimes a combination of the colors such as blue-green or orange.
Some diamonds with "very strong" fluorescence can have a "milky" or "oily" look to them, but they are also very rare and are termed "overblues.
Since blue is a complementary color to yellow and can appear to cancel it out, strong blue fluorescence had especially better color appearance with lower color graded diamonds that have a slight yellowish tint such as I or J color but had little effect on the more colorless D, E and F color grades.
Cleanliness significantly affects a diamond's beauty. A clean diamond is more brilliant and fiery than the same diamond when it is "dirty".
Dirt or grease on the top of a diamond reduces its luster. Water, dirt, or grease on the bottom of a diamond interferes with the diamond's brilliance and fire.
Even a thin film absorbs some light that could have been reflected to the viewer. Colored dye or smudges can affect the perceived color of a diamond.
Historically, some jewelers' stones were misgraded because of smudges on the girdle, or dye on the culet. Current practice is to clean a diamond thoroughly before grading its color.
Maintaining a clean diamond can sometimes be difficult as jewelry settings can obstruct cleaning, and oils, grease, and other hydrophobic materials adhere well to a diamond.
Many jewelers use steam cleaners. Some jewelers provide their customers with ammonia -based cleaning kits; ultrasonic cleaners are also popular.
Historically, it has been claimed that diamonds possess several supernatural powers:. Because of their extraordinary physical properties , diamonds have been used symbolically since near the time of their first discovery.
Perhaps the earliest symbolic use of diamonds was as the eyes of Hindu devotional statues. Vajra is the word for diamond and ayudham means weapon in Sanskrit.
Another name for it was Agira which means fire or the sun. In fact there are 14 names counted to be given to a diamond in traditional Hinduism.